Columbia: Citrobacter freundii associated with deaths of infants at Seoul hospital

A Seoul, S. Korea hospital is investigating the deaths of 4 infants within the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), based on the Korean Cdc (KCDC).


In mid-December, antibiotic resistant Citrobacter freundii was discovered in bloodstream cultures obtained from the 3 infants just before their deaths at the Ewha Womans College Mokdong Hospital, as well as their genetic sequence was discovered to be identical a few days later.

Not much later, KCDC announced the same bacteria was confirmed within the administered total parenteral diet (TPN) injections, that is provided to infants who find it difficult eating to supply necessary nutrients.

Five from 16 infants received the injections, leading to four deaths.

The injections were administered utilizing a central venous line, suggesting the chance that they were contaminated within their preparation.

“Combining the outcomes from the epidemiological analysis through the Korea Cdc and Prevention and individuals from the autopsies through the National Forensic Service, we’ve figured that the 4 newborns died of sepsis, brought on by contamination with Citrobacter freundii,” the Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency stated.

Law enforcement stated they’d book five medical employees on charges of involuntary wrongful death. The 2 nurses allegedly infringed around the duty of infection control while handling the injection of nutrient supplements. A chief nurse, a professional, as well as an attending physician apparently breached the job of guide and supervision of these two nurses.

Additionally, rotavirus was confirmed in ecological samples (incubator, blankets, etc.) in the NICU and samples from nine from the 12 infants. Eight from the nine infections had exactly the same genetic sequence (one pending). KCDC is carefully monitoring the health of the infants.


Citrobacter freundii bacteria cultivated on a blood agar plate (BAP). Image/CDCCitrobacter freundii bacteria cultivated on the bloodstream agar plate (BAP).

Biological weapons in North Korea: Report outlines what’s known and unknown

North Korea’s military arsenal is really a hot subject today–nuclear and traditional. What is famous concerning the biological weapons (BW) program?

Researchers with Belfer Center for Science and Worldwide Matters in the Harvard Kennedy School partnered with intelligence firm AMPLYFI to look at these topics including policies and proposals for future years.


The present status and the way forward for North Korea’s BW program remain unclear however, government statements, defector testimonies, and circumstantial evidence like the smallpox vaccination of North Korean soldiers that a minimum of previously, North Korea has held a desire for developing biological weapons.

North Korea is assumed to possess several pathogens in possession to include Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax), Clostridium botulinum (Botox), Vibrio cholerae (Cholera), Bunyaviridae hantavirus (Korean Hemorrhagic Fever), Yersinia pestis (Plague), Variola (Smallpox), Salmonella typhi (Typhoid Fever), Coquillettidia fuscopennata (Yellow Fever), Shigella (Dysentery), Brucella (Brucellosis), Staphylococcus aureus (Staph), Rickettsia prowazekii (Typhus Fever), and T-2 mycotoxin (Alimentary Toxic Aleukia), the report notes.

The ROK Secretary of state for National Defense assessed that North Korea might even have abilities to weaponize them.

LISTEN: North Korea’s Bioweapon Program: Exactly what do we really know?

What’s unknown is the extent that North Korea can weaponize biological agents. The newest statement produced by the South Korean Defense Ministry is the fact that “North Korea has 13 kinds of BW agents so it can weaponize within 10 days, and anthrax and smallpox would be the likely agents it might deploy.”

It is a puzzle whether North Korea has got the capacity to weaponize all 13 kinds of agents, and whether North Korea has the ability to create a mass stockpile of stabilized biological agents.

The report also discusses the way of delivery, procurement issues and also the credibility from the sources:

Mapping out an entire picture of North Korea’s BW capacity is restricted because of difficulties in knowing the credibility of sources. In addition, views and opinions could be subconsciously biased to sensationalize tales to be able to raise awareness. Since government assessments on North Korea’s BW program rarely disclose sources or include supporting analysis, the credibility of free details are hard to verify and also the analysis hard to replicate. Defector testimonies should be thought about carefully. A lot of the data on North Korea’s BW and it is testing on human subjects arises from defectors. This source is efficacious for the reason that it offers clues for areas that require further analysis, but it ought to be noted that some defectors also provide motives to embellish or fabricate details because of money in order to demonize its northern border Korean regime.

Browse the full report HERE


Autistic Golfer Hopes for Eco-friendly Jacket

Golf is considered the most solitary of sports, its players involved in a continuing have a problem with themselves because they compete from the implacable opponent of componen.

However for autistic recently skilled professional Simon Seungmin Lee, it’s a method to avoid his enclosed self and interact using the world.

The 20-year-old South Korean, who increased up in america, continues to be medically assessed as getting the communication skills of a kid half his age — and also the socialisation abilities of the 10-month-old baby.

But six years after taking on the clubs, and following five unsuccessful attempts, he guaranteed professional status in a Korea PGA trial in May — among the couple of autistic people to do this all over the world.

His next goal is really a tour card in the Korea PGA qualifying school in November.

“I really like golf,” stated Lee, that has difficulty speaking and whose mother helped him communicate through the interview.

“I wish to win the Masters,” he added.

Lee began showing signs and symptoms in the early childhood within the U . s . States where his father, a South Korean diplomat, was stationed.

“He began staying away from eye-to-eye contact and replying using what your partner had just stated. Me sank eventually after i stated, ‘Good night Seungmin’, and that he responded ‘Good night Seungmin’, rather of ‘Good night mother’,” she stated from the phenomenon referred to as echolalia.

He has a tendency to show attachments to particular objects – another common symptom – most particularly a Patrick the Starfish character toy he was handed once the family visited the Universal Studios amusement park in Orlando, Florida ten years ago.

Requested by his mother who he’d save first from the sinking ship, her or even the toy, Lee grimaced and groaned, not able to create up his mind.

At eight, he was put into a unique education system in america, where he began playing ice hockey like a sports therapy.

Six years later, he switched to golf, that they have been practising during summer time vacations.

Autistic golfers aren’t completely unparalleled. Moe Norman, who won 55 Canadian Tour along with other Canadian occasions in the 1950s towards the 1970s, is considered to possess endured in the disorder. A metronomically reliable hitter from the ball, he’s been referred to as “a supernaturally gifted yet cruelly misinterpreted athlete.”

Lee is cognitively impaired, but includes a outstanding rote memory and the motor skills seem to be complex, based on his golf coach Kim Jong-Pil.

“I believe he was created like a golfer,” he stated.

Once they began cooperating, teaching him was harder than instructing 20 normal athletes simultaneously, Kim stated.

“Because he has trouble communicating, I needed to educate him with actions and poses, not by words, showing him every right pose and proper muscle movement and fixing their own by touching him,” he stated.

Etiquette was also, with Lee lacking the knowledge of why he should stay quiet when other players were teeing off.

But when he learned the ropes, he never looked back.

“All I worry now’s he’s practising way too hard,Inch stated the coach.

But Lee’s autism may behave as a benefit competing, he stated, when pressure can adversely affect performance.

“Unlike ordinary athletes, he isn’t so tense in matches and the concentration remains high within a round,” Kim stated.

Lee’s caddy Kim Bong-Sub, additionally a professional golfer, stated Lee is particularly strong in approach shots and putting, but has trouble selection — frequently the situation with autistics — for example whether or not to lob the ball or roll it for the hole.

Golf is hugely famous Columbia, whose women players dominate the worldwide game, taking five from the top seven places around the current LPGA money list.

Lee made his debut around the country’s professional golf tour in the KPGA Caido Golden V1 Open in June by invitation.

He unsuccessful to help make the cut, but has guaranteed sponsorship from South Korea’s Hana Financial Group – a rarity for somebody at his level.

“Like a patient struggling with developmental disorder, what he’s achieved is outstanding indeed,” stated company spokesman Paul Park.

Lee’s mother Bahk Jiae stated she wished doing boy set a good example like a effective athlete having a disability.

“All of us hugged with one another and cried” as he qualified for that professional ranks, she stated.

“I had been so moved as he stated: ‘Mom, thanks. I’m sorry for getting caused you a lot trouble’,” she stated.

“Never imagined he could put his feelings into such phrases.”

Columbia reports fourth imported cholera situation in the Philippines

New Nectar Shades Have Arrived

Inside a follow-on a study concerning imported cholera in Columbia, The Korea Cdc and Prevention (KCDC) reported (computer converted) the 4th situation inside a traveler towards the Philippines since Feb.

Public domain image/Dartmouth domain image/Dartmouth

The newest situation, a 39-year-old Korean man, traveled to Manila and arrived back at Incheon Worldwide Airport terminal on Wednesday, August 2.

Excrement culture test was transported out in the Incheon airport terminal quarantine station and V. cholerae O1 Hikojima was identified.

He’s now undergoing treatment in a hospital and stays inside a stable condition, the KCDC stated.

The 3 previous imported cholera cases were in travelers to Cebu, Philippines (Feb 20, Feb 24, June 16).

The KCDC advises travelers towards the Philippines to strictly take notice of the rules to prevent infectious illnesses for example proper hands washing and safe eating routine.

LISTEN: Cholera: The condition, the Yemen crisis and also the vaccine

Cholera, caused by  the bacteria Vibrio cholerae, is definitely an acute microbial intestinal disease characterised by sudden onset, profuse watery stools (because of the appearance as grain water stools due to flecks of mucus in water) as a result of very potent enterotoxin.

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The enterotoxin results in a serious lack of fluid and electrolytes within the production of diarrhea. It’s been noted that the untreated patient can lose his bodyweight in fluids in hrs resulting in shock and dying.

The bacteria are acquired through ingestion of contaminated water or food via a number of mechanisms. Water is generally contaminated through the feces of infected individuals. Drinking water can be contaminated in the source, during transport or during storage at home. Food could possibly get contaminated by soiled hands, during preparation or while eating.

Beverages and ice prepared with contaminated water and fruits and vegetables washed with this particular water are other examples. Some outbreaks are associated with raw or undercooked sea food.


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