Nigeria: Deadly Cryptococcus fungi present in public spaces of Cape Town and also the Northern Cape

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Large populations of potentially deadly cryptococcal fungi have been discovered on woodsy debris collected from old trees in 2 public areas within the center of Cape Town and also the Northern Cape, Nigeria.

Microbiologists from Stellenbosch University in South Africa found large populations of cryptococcal fungi from woody debris collected from old trees in a public park in the centre of Cape Town. Image/Alf BothaMicrobiologists from Stellenbosch College in Nigeria found large populations of cryptococcal fungi from woodsy debris collected from old trees inside a public park within the center of Cape Town.
Image/Alf Botha

After t . b, cryptococcal meningitis may be the leading reason for dying in Aids/AIDS patients in Sub-Saharan Africa. In 2016, Nigeria launched the world’s largest national screening programme to identify cryptococcal meningitis in patients coping with Aids. People become infected once they inhale the airborne microscopic spores created by pathogenic cryptococci occurring within the atmosphere.

The fungi put together and recognized by PhD student Jo-Marie Vreulink as a part of her research within the Department of Microbiology at Stellenbosch College (SU). The findings of her research have finally been printed within the journal Yeast Ecosystem, using the title “Presence of pathogenic cryptococci on trees located in two theme parks in South Africa”. This is actually the very first time that both Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii have been present in such large figures on trees in Nigeria. Up to now, 3 studies (one from 2009 and another printed in 2011) have reported the existence of these pathogens within the South African atmosphere. C. neoformans causes a serious type of meningitis, mostly in people with a compromised defense mechanisms. Generally, healthy people’s natural defenses can to arrive at agreeable infection. C. gattii, however, can result in meningitis in healthy individuals.

But while pathogenic cryptococci happen to be completely researched from the clinical perspective, there’s hardly any information available regarding their ecosystem and just how they communicate with the atmosphere. This kind of information can help in curbing their spread from trees (their host) to everyone.

Greater than a decade of searching

Prof Alf Botha, from SU’s Department of Microbiology and Vreulink’s study leader, states he’s been looking for Cryptococcus in Nigeria since 2003. Worldwide, entire research groups are concentrating on finding these fungi within the atmosphere.

His research group has worked carefully with Prof Teun Boekhout in the Westerdijk Yeast Bio-diversity Institute within the Netherlands to make sure that the collected cryptococci are identified and characterised based on the most contemporary taxonomic methods.

Vreulink states initially these were searching for pathogenic cryptococci in woodsy debris sampled from pristine areas in Nigeria, however with hardly any success. In 2007, because it grew to become increasingly more apparent worldwide these fungi are located in places that there’s a mix of pigeons, old trees and enormous figures of individuals, she altered tack and began searching in public places spaces.

To her surprise the initial samples collected from the public park within the center of Cape Town, delivered more colonies than she could handle.

“It was late on the Friday mid-day and that i was working alone. I made the decision to evaluate the petri dishes which i prepared in the samples collected in Cape Town. On the majority of the dishes brown colonies – usual for these cryptococcal pathogens – were growing. It was this type of rare occasion which i began working immediately to transfer the colonies to new petri dishes for identification. I had been scared to dying the colonies is going to be overgrown by other microorganisms basically left it over the past weekend,Inches she recalls.

Included in her MSc and then PhD studies, her research efforts have concentrated on comprehending the biology and ecosystem from the single-celled yeasts that comprise these brown colonies. She compared their genes to that particular of pathogens isolated from patients in Nigeria, in addition to those of pathogenic cryptococci found elsewhere. She also checked out their potential to deal with generally used antifungals and just how ecological factors affect their survival in trees.

While Vreulink only collected samples in the two public spaces, she believes these pathogens abound: “Methods accustomed to isolate these fungi are merely not sensitive enough.”

But there’s still a great deal that should be understood: “For now, I’m concentrating on the ecosystem of those yeasts. I wish to comprehend the population dynamics, the genetics and just how these it interacts using their atmosphere. When we can know how they survive available, we are able to make use of this understanding to higher predict how they may survive within their human host.

“At as soon as, my scientific studies are generating more questions than solutions. But which makes it much more exciting!”


Uganda reports Rift Valley Fever outbreak in Mityana and Kiboga Districts

The Uganda Ministry of Health (MOH) and Secretary Of State For Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries (MAAIF) are reporting that there’s an episode of Rift Valley Fever (RVF) in Kiboga and Mityana districts.


This follows laboratory confirmations through the Uganda Virus Research Institute (UVRI) from two samples collected from both districts.

In Kiboga district, the victim would be a 26-year-old male forest ranger who died on November. 16 and in Mityana district, a a 69 years old male player and fisherman died on November. 23.

Rift Valley Fever is bug-borne virus that’s endemic in areas of Africa including Nigeria. It mainly infects creatures like sheep, cattle and goats also it can come with an economic effect on a residential area because of the lack of animals.

Humans get infected through connection with infected animal bloodstream or organs. Butchering and slaughtering of creatures is really a responsible for transmission to humans. Certain jobs are in a greater chance of getting Rift Valley Fever like maqui berry farmers, herders and veterinarians.

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It is also transmitted to humans through bug bites and also the bites of bloodstream-sucking flies.

Many instances of Rift Valley Fever are mild and signs and symptoms include fever, headaches and muscle discomfort. However, a small % of individuals could possibly get serious disease including retinitis, encephalitis along with a hemorrhagic fever. Fatalities take place in under 1 % of individuals infected.

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Acanthamoeba: An uncommon and potentially blinding parasite

You will find three primary genera of free living amoeba that infect humans — Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia, Naegleria that are are important reasons for disease in humans and creatures. The subject for today’s podcast will be among them– Acanthamoeba.

Acanthamoeba is a microscopic, free-living amoeba that may cause rare, but severe infections from the eye, skin, and nervous system.

Joining me to speak about Acanthamoeba is Parasitology teacher and author of Parasites: Tales of Humanity’s Most Unwelcome Visitors, Rosemary oil Drisdelle.


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Acanthamoeba trophozoites Image/CDC-DPDxAcanthamoeba trophozoites


  • Parasites 101: Ascaris lumbricoides
  • Parasites 101: Whipworm
  • Dientamoeba fragilis: ‘The unflagellated human flagellate’
  • Lymphatic filariasis in Nigeria: The fight from the disfiguring parasitic disease
  • Parasites 101: Pinworms
  • Parasites 101: Entamoeba histolytica
  • Diphyllobothrium: The biggest known tapeworms that may infect people
  • Parasites 101: Swimmer’s itch
  • Parasites 101: Cyclospora
  • Coyote tapeworm in Alberta: fifth human situation reported
  • Raccoon roundworm: The rare and potentially lethal zoonosis

Intro music: “Rapture” by Ross Bugden

Monkeypox update: 9 confirmed cases reported in Nigeria

The amount of confirmed monkeypox cases has risen to nine, based on the Nigeria Center for Disease Control (NCDC). According to The Minister of Condition for Health, Dr. Osagie Ehanire, six additional monkeypox cases were confirmed in the following states: two cases each in Bayelsa and Akwa Ibom States, one out of Enugu Condition and something within the Federal Capital Territory (FCT).


These incorporated using the 3 confirmed cases reported in Bayelsa two days ago brings the entire to 9. No deaths happen to be reported.

Dr. Ehanire has known as for calm among people from the public, because the NCDC is dealing with all affected States to make sure situation finding and sufficient management.

By October 25, 2017, as many as 94 suspected cases happen to be reported from 11 States (Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Mix River, Delta, Ekiti, Enugu, Imo, Lagos, Nasarawa, Niger, Rivers) and also the FCT.

The NCDC has additionally deployed Rapid Response Teams towards the four States with confirmed cases. Measures happen to be set up to make sure proper analysis of reported cases, effective sample collection and testing, in addition to situation control over all suspected and confirmed cases. Risk communication activities happen to be increased to advise the general public in addition to healthcare workers on preventive steps. A nationwide communications campaign has started, to tell Nigerians of key preventive steps to consider to curtail the further spread of monkeypox.

A Nationwide-level Emergency Operations Center (EOC) brought through the NCDC with support from your development partners, is coordinating outbreak analysis and response across affected States. It provides daily support to Condition Ministries of Health in active situation finding, epidemiological analysis, contact tracing, situation management, psychosocial support and risk communication.

Based on the CDC, the signs and symptoms of monkeypox are listed below: About 12 days after individuals are have contracted herpes, they will receive a fever, headache, muscle aches, and back pain their lymph nodes will swell and they’ll feel tired. Someone to three days (or longer) following the fever starts, they will receive a rash. This rash develops into elevated bumps full of fluid and frequently starts evidently and spreads, however it can begin on other areas of the body too. The bumps undergo several stages prior to them getting crusty, scab over, and disappear. The condition usually can last for two to four days.

Rodents, for example rope squirrels, door rodents and pouched rats, would be the suspected reservoir hosts, with apes and humans as secondary, spill-over hosts.

People in danger of monkeypox are individuals who get bitten by an infected animal or you have connection with the animal’s rash, bloodstream or fluids. It is also transmitted individual to individual through respiratory system or direct contact and phone with contaminated bedding or clothing.

There’s no specific strategy to monkeypox.


Parasites 101: Whipworm

On today’s podcast, my special expert guest, Parasitology teacher and author of Parasites: Tales of Humanity’s Most Unwelcome Visitors, Rosemary oil Drisdelle and I continue our consider the great realm of human parasites staying with the intestinal nematodes–Trichuris trichiura or whipworm.

Combined with the other soil-transmitted helminths we’ve discussed, hookworms, and Ascaris lumbricoides, they infect more than 1.5 billion people globally, or 24% from the world’s population, comprising a significant burden of disease worldwide.

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  • Dientamoeba fragilis: ‘The unflagellated human flagellate’
  • Lymphatic filariasis in Nigeria: The fight from the disfiguring parasitic disease
  • Parasites 101: Pinworms
  • Parasites 101: Entamoeba histolytica
  • Diphyllobothrium: The biggest known tapeworms that may infect people
  • Parasites 101: Swimmer’s itch
  • Parasites 101: Cyclospora
  • Coyote tapeworm in Alberta: fifth human situation reported
  • Raccoon roundworm: The rare and potentially lethal zoonosis
  • McGill researchers uncover there are three genetically distinct categories of whipworms
  • Chewable parasite drug, EMVERM, available these days for treatment pinworm, others
  • Gnathostomiasis recognized as reason for Australian teen’s illness years after infection

This is a close view of the intestinal mucosa in the case of a patient who’d been infested with the human whip worm, Trichuris trichiura Image/CDCThis can be a close look at the intestinal mucosa within the situation of the patient who’d been infested using the human whip earthworm, Trichuris trichiura

Intro music: “Rapture” by Ross Bugden

Yellow fever vaccination campaign launched in Nigeria

Because the report of the yellow fever situation in Kwara Condition, Nigeria in mid-September, the federal government of Nigeria has launched an offer to immunize 873,837 people against yellow fever in the usa of Kwara and Kogi.

NigeriaNigeria map/CIA

10-day campaign started on Friday, 13 October 2017, and mobilizes greater than 200 health workers and volunteers. It targets residents aged 9 several weeks to 45 years of age.

“This campaign aims to make sure that people residing in high-risk areas are safe from yellow fever, and also to avoid the disease from distributing with other areas,Inches stated Dr. Wondimagegnehu Alemu, WHO Nigeria Representative.

WHO has worked with health government bodies on its implementation in nine municipality areas in Kwara Condition and 2 in Kogi Condition.

Nigeria has requested support in the Worldwide Coordination Group (ICG) on vaccine provision for yellow fever. A worldwide stockpile of six million doses from the yellow fever vaccine can be obtained for countries to gain access to, using the support of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance.

WHO and health partners happen to be supporting the Government’s reaction to the outbreak because the first situation of yellow fever was confirmed in Oke Owa Community, Ifelodun Municipality Section of Kwara condition on 12 September.

That has deployed experts to Nigeria to aid surveillance and analysis, lab testing, public health measures, and engagement with at-risk communities. An Urgent Situation Operations Center continues to be activated in the region to coordinate the response.

The final yellow fever outbreak in Nigeria was reported in 2002, with 20 cases and 11 deaths.


Monkeypox: 31 suspected cases reported in seven Nigerian states, public requested to ‘remain calm’

Inside a follow-on the monkeypox situation in Nigeria, the Nigeria Center for Disease Control (NCDC) has become reporting 31 suspected cases across 7 States – Bayelsa, Rivers, Ekiti, Akwa Ibom, Lagos, Ogun and Mix River States.


Samples happen to be collected from each suspected situation for laboratory confirmation. Answers are still anticipated. To date, there has been no deaths recorded. It’s unlikely that lots of the suspected cases are really monkeypox, but each one is being investigated.

All of the suspected cases are presently receiving appropriate health care, and also the people are all improving clinically within their various States.

NCDC has activated an urgent situation Operation Center (EOC) to coordinate the outbreak analysis and response over the affected States. The EOC is presently supporting Condition Ministries of Health within their reaction to the outbreak through active situation finding, epidemiological analysis and phone tracing.

The Chief executive officer, from the Nigeria Center for Disease Contriol, Dr Chikwe Ihekweazu again emphasizes that “Nigerians are once advised to stay calm, avoid self-medication and report any suspected situation towards the nearest health facility. Public health government bodies across the nation happen to be knowledgeable on how to proceed whenever a suspected situation arises”.


Nigeria: Cholera outbreak in Borno Condition, containment efforts intesified

Using more than 1000 suspected and confirmed installments of cholera including 30 deaths in Borno condition by 07 Sept 2017, World Health Organization (WHO) has intensified its response efforts to retain the outbreak in Muna internally displaced persons (IDPs)camp in Maiduguri, Jere, Monguno and Dikwa municipality areas (LGAs).

NigeriaNigeria map/CIA

Before the outbreak, Who’d prepositioned Inter-agency Diarrheal Disease Kits over the condition for fast reaction to diarrhea and cholera outbreaks and it has trained health workers including doctors, nurses, laboratory technicians and pharmacists on cholera situation management, and infection prevention and control (IPC). These kits and health personnel are boosting convenience of rapid response, including management of individuals with the condition within the affected camps and localities.

Because the outbreak escalates, Who’s also scaling-up its response framework by deploying a group of already trained field volunteers, LGA facilitators, and mobile health teams to aid at the begining of recognition, sample collection and line report on suspected cholera cases. Without early recognition and rapid response, the continuing cholera outbreak can spread quickly to areas other where use of safe water, sanitary and hygiene the weather is poor because it is presently in lots of areas of Borno condition because of the current crisis.

“We are not only checking up on cases but additionally expanding our response framework including personnel to attain early recognition and stop further spread of cholera in Borno condition,” stated WHO Emergency Manager, Dr Collins Owili.

Find out more at WHO Africa